The plasma membrane forms a barrier against excessive amounts of Na+ within the extracellular fluid from entering the cell. However, the plasma membrane is slightly “leaky” to Na+, allowing minimal amounts of Na+ to gradually move into the cell. To compensate this, there is a perpetually active Na+/K+ATPase pump, which move Na+ out of the cell constantly, in exchange for K+ into the cell. The normal functioning of these pumps is hampered due to depletion of ATP which leads to accumulation of Na+ intracellularly creating osmotic pressure which causes cellular swelling.
Fatty Change (Steatosis): This steatosis is caused in hypoxic, toxic and metabolic injuries and is related to a dysfunction in the cell’s regulation of synthesis and elimination of triglycerides. Excess lipids accumulate within the cells, usually parenchymal cells that form numerous vacuoles that displace the cytoplasm. If these vesicles are large enough to displace and distort the nucleus, it is referred to as macrovesicular steatosis.
Calcification- It occurs when calcium builds up in body tissue, blood vessels or organs. This buildup can harden and disrupt body’s normal processes. Types of Calcification: Calcifications can form in many places throughout body, including:
-Small and large arteries
-Brain, where it is known as cranial calcification
-Joints and tendons, such as knee joints and rotator cuff tendons
- Soft tissues like breasts, muscles, and fat
-Kidney, bladder and gallbladder
Causes of Calcification: Many factors have been found to play a role in calcification. These include: infections, calcium metabolism disorders that cause hyperkalaemia, genetic or autoimmune disorders affecting skeletal system and connective tissues, persistent inflammation.