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belonging to or characteristic of the nobility or aristocracy.


i) harsh or corrosive in tone
ii) Strong and sharp


occupied with or fond of the pleasures of good company.


Movement of a body part away from the midline (central axis) of the body.


- marked by moderate steepness
- having or showing a kindly or tender nature
- belonging to or characteristic of the nobility or aristocracy
- easily handled or managed
- quiet and soothing
- give a title to someone; make someone a member of the nobility



Abdominal Cavity

The part of the body between the bottom of the ribs and the top of the thighs, containing most of the digestive and urinary systems along with some reproductive organs.


End of pregnancy by means of natural causes (miscarriage) or by surgical or medical procedures.


1. a natural ability to do something.
2. suitability or fitness


the slow escape/flow of a liquid or gas through a porous material or small holes.
process of oozing

Twilight Sleep

insensitivity to pain without losing the consciousness achieved by injecting sedative analgesics.


- breathing with a husky or whistling sound
- a clever or amusing scheme or trick


- Move or go with an smooth up and down motion.
- having a smoothly rising and falling form or outline or a wave like motion. (undulated or undulating)


- move one's hand to and fro in greeting or as a signal.
- style (hair) so that it curls slightly.
- a sudden occurrence of or increase in a phenomenon, feeling, or emotion.
- a ridge of water between two depressions in open water.


- a substance or material capable of polishing or cleaning a hard surface by rubbing or grinding. (adjective)
- showing little concern for the feeling of others. (adjective)
- a substance is used for cleaning, polishing, or grinding hard surfaces. (noun)


A disease due to an increase in the number of red blood cells.


A blood disorder involving lower-than-normal amounts of an oxygen-carrying protein.


- a red blood cell. (noun)
- hemoglobin-containing cells in the blood, red in color, transports oxygen from lungs to other body organs.


- a rare congenital deformity in which the hands or feet are attached close to the trunk, the limbs being grossly underdeveloped or absent. This condition was a side effect of the drug thalidomide taken during early pregnancy.
- derived from Greek words ph?k? meaning ‘seal’ and melos meaning ‘limb’.ie. sealed limbs.



Eutectic Mixture

The mixture of two or more solid substances which liquefy due to its lower melting point than room temperature.


a condition in which proteins ( i.e albumin) releases with urine.








- courteous and gallant i.e. for a man who is protective towards women.
- being attentive toward women.
- relating to the historical notion of chivalry i.e. courageous kings and warriors.


- A Person Who Holds Land Under The Conditions Of The Feudal System.
- owing feudal allegiance to or being subject to a sovereign.


plural of feudatory.
- of or pertaining to the relation of a feudal vassal to his lord.


- very strong feelings of love (romantic ardour)
- very strong feelings of admiration or excitement (revolutionary ardour)




to make or being brittle.
to make something breakable.
to make or being weak.




being of striking appropriateness and pertinence.


recurring in scattered and irregular or unpredictable instances.


old-fashioned and no longer used or useful


- breadth, range, or magnitude.
- the greatest distance that a wave, especially a sound or radio wave, moves up and down.


Affect with wonder (~verb)


a person who is professionally qualified to prepare and dispense medicinal drugs.


Creativity is the act of turning new and imaginative ideas into reality.


demanding that rules concerning behaviour are obeyed and observed


able to be relied on as honest or truthful


:To make Breifer


a person who sets up a business or businesses, taking on financial risks in the hope of profit.


pronounce words in a religious rite in order to confer or invoke divine favour upon; ask God to look favourably on.
(of God or some notional higher power) endow someone with (a particular cherished thing or attribute).


- to remove the sacred character of
- transfer (a building) from sacred to secular use. (secularism)
- the act of removing a religious blessing from something that had been previously consecrated. (deconsecration or secularization)


(of a person) weak and delicate.


- physical substance in general, as distinct from mind and spirit;
- a subject or situation under consideration.




the process of making something free from bacteria or other living microorganisms (ex: disinfection and sterilization of surgical equipment)
the surgical procedure to make a person or animal unable to produce offspring.






The rules of polite and correct behavior in society or profession.


fluent or persuasive in speaking or writing


Additive with no intended pharmacological action, used in the formulation of dosage forms.


Introduction of a substance to an organism by a defined route


Accumulation of gases, liquids, or solutes on a solid surface, e.g., powder, polymer, glassware, syringes, etc.


Mixture of small particles (solid, liquid, or a mixed variety) and a carrier gas (usually air).


Accumulation or collection of particles into larger units.


Solid substances that are not crystals. Amorphous solids consist of randomly oriented molecules. Solids without definite shape consist of randomly oriented molecules.

Angle Of Repose

Characteristic angle of slope formed with the horizontal by the side of a static conical mound of powder


Procedure for estimating the concentration or biological activity of a substance by measuring its effect on a living system compared to a standard system


Substance that acts as adhesives to bind together powders for making tablets (direct tableting) or granules (granulation) that are mainly used in tableting.


Relationship between two preparations of the same drug in the same dosage form that have a similar bioavailability.

Biological Half Life

For a substance, the time required for the amount of a drug or a substance in a biological system to be reduced to one-half of its value by biological processes when the rate of removal is approximately exponential.

Biological Product

Virus, therapeutic serum, toxin, antitoxin, or analogous product applicable to the prevention, treatment, or cure of diseases or injuries in humans and/or animals.

Buccal Tablet

Usually a small, flat, and soft tablet, which is designed to be placed inside the cheek to be directly ab- sorbed through the mucosa for systemic effect.


Technique that uses living organisms (or component(s) of organisms) to make or modify prod- ucts, to improve plants or animals, or to develop microorganisms for specific uses.

Bulk Density

Characteristic of a powder rather than of individual particles given by the mass of powder occupying a known volume.


Small edible package made usually from gelatin or other materials that can be filled with drugs (solids or liquids) to produce a unit dose, mainly for oral use. Hard capsules consist of two pieces that fit one inside the other which are produced empty and filled in a separate operation, and soft, liquid-filled cap- sules, which are manufactured and filled in one operation.


Separation of colloidal systems into two liquid phases. The phase more concentrated in colloid component is the coacervate, while the other phase is the equilibrium solution


Close, tight aggregation of colloid particles, emulsion droplets, suspension par- ticles, which are difficult to redisperse.


Technological process consisting of the application of a substance, which forms a layer (e.g, to protect the drug and/or the tablet, to mask taste, to control the rate of drug release (e.g., film coating, sugar coating).

Compressed Tablet

A solid dosage form prepared to a desired shape, usually in large-scale production, by means of high pressure in a punch and die.


Vehicle (often ethanol) used in combination to increase the solubility of drugs. Frequently, the solubil- ity of a drug in a mixed solvent system is greater than can be predicted from its solubility in each sol- vent component separately.


Semi-solid emulsion for external application. Oil-in-water emulsions are most useful as water-washable bases, whereas water-in-oil emulsions are emollient and cleansing

Critical Micelle Concentration (cmc)

Threshold detergent concentration at which micelle formation begins in the bulk phase. This means that all effective molecules are present as monomers at a concentration below their cmc.

Critical Moisture Content

A stage in the drying of solids, above which the drying rate (derived from the plot of the loss of moisture content against time) is linear, at which the drying rate ceases to be linear, until it reaches the equiibrium moisture content.

Crossover Study

Type of comparative bioavailability study designed in such a way as to take into account differences in bioavailability arising from differences between patients suffering from disease, participating in the study.


Term that describes a solid of regular shape and the presence of three-dimensional order on the level of atomic dimensions, for a given molecule.


Reversal of coagulation or flocculation, i.e., the dispersion of aggregates to form a stable colloidal suspension or emulsion.

Delayed-release Dosage Form

Pharmaceutical preparation that releases the drug(s) at a time other than promptly after administration.


Process that occurs when the vapor pressure of the saturated aqueous solution of a substance is less than the vapor pressure of water in the ambient air.


Substance that absorbs sufficient moisture from the atmosphere to dissolve itself.


Deposit of a drug in a body created by injection or by a similar mode of introduction to form a source of slow release.


Property, which serves as basis for the process whereby surfactants are used for the removal of foreign matter from surfaces (including dirt from clothes or body surfaces).


Surfactant (or a mixture containing one or more surfactants) having cleaning properties in dilute solutions (soaps are surfactants and detergents) .

Disperse System

Dosage form in which the active ingredient is insoluble in the carrier; includes aerosols (solids or liquids in gas), suspensions (solids in liquids), emulsions (liquids in liquids), and foams (gas in liquid), or ointments/creams (solid in solid or in semi-solid, or liquid in solid).

Divided Granule

Formulation in which individual doses of a granulated dosage form are separated (e.g., gelatin capsules).

Divided Powder

Powder formulation in which individual doses of a powdered dosage form are separately wrapped (e.g., sachets, envelopes, or gelatin capsules).


Property, which serves as basis for the process whereby surfactants are used for the removal of foreign matter from surfaces (including dirt from clothes or body surfaces).
See also detergents, solubilizing, surface-active agent, surfactant.


Surfactant (or a mixture containing one or more surfactants) having cleaning properties in dilute solutions (soaps are surfactants and detergents) .

Disperse System

Dosage form in which the active ingredient is insoluble in the carrier; includes aerosols (solids or liquids in gas), suspensions (solids in liquids), emulsions (liquids in liquids), and foams (gas in liquid), or ointments/creams (solid in solid or in semi-solid, or liquid in solid).

Divided Granule

Formulation in which individual doses of a granulated dosage form are separated (e.g., gelatin capsules).

Divided Powder

Powder formulation in which individual doses of a powdered dosage form are separately wrapped (e.g., sachets, envelopes, or gelatin capsules).

Dosage Form

Formulated preparation of molecules/drugs that are rarely if ever suitable for administration to patients without additives.

Dosage Regimen

Dose and dosing interval of a drug.


Biologically active substance, which when biodistributed in the body is expected to modify one or more of its functions.

Drug Delivery System

Sophisticated dosage form, which, by its construction, is able to modify/control the availability of the drug substance to the body by temporal or spatial considerations.

Dusting Powder

Usually intended for external use.

Effervescent Tablet

Solid preparation that on contact with water breaks apart by the effect of gas (usually CO2) evolution, resulting commonly from the reaction of hydrogen carbonate with citric or tartaric acid, in order to facilitate dissolution or dispersion of the active ingredient before ingestion.


The drying of a salt solution when the vapour pressure of water in the saturated solution of a substance is greater than the partial pressure of water in the ambient air.


Substance that loses water to form a lower hydrate or becomes anhydrous spontaneously.


Sweet (often colored) dilute alcohol-based, “hydroalcoholic”, liquid used in the compounding of drugs to be taken by mouth in order to improve palatability.


The process of separating the lighter particles of a powder from the heavier ones by means of an up- ward-directed stream of fluid (gas or liquid).


Technological process, which consists of mixing or inclusion of the therapeutic substance with an ex- cipient or their mixtures, typically as a matrix dosage form, in order to change the rate of release.


Fluid colloidal dispersion system in which liquid droplets and/or liquid crystals are dispersed in a liquid.


Process of enclosing a drug in a (micro or nano) particle (capsule, liposome, polymer).


Solutions (aqueous or oily), emulsions, or suspensions for rectal administration of medicaments for cleansing, diagnostic, or therapeutic purposes

Enteric Coating

Used on tablets, granules, pellets, and capsules to make them resistant to gastric fluids but designed to disintegrate, disrupt, or dissolve when the preparation enters the duodenum.

Equilibrium Moisture Content (emc)

Final stage reached after drying of a solid, beyond the critical moisture content.

Fast-dissolving Tablet

A tablet formulation intended for a rapid release of its active agent.


Process of contact and adhesion whereby particles in dispersion form larger-size clusters.


Summary of operations carried out to convert a pharmacologically active compound into a dosage form suitable for administration.


Aqueous solution used for the prevention and treatment of mouth and throat infections.

Gastric Emptying Rate

Pace at which a drug along with the stomach content leaves and enters the duodenum.


Colloidal system with a finite, usually rather small yield stress.

Gene Therapy

Use of products containing genetic material (e.g., pDNA, antisense DNA, siRNA) to treat a disease or condition, or to modify or manipulate the expression of genetic material or to alter the biological prop- erties of living cells.


Drug(s) or formulation(s) of drug(s) or dosage forms, which no longer have patent protection.


Powder particles, which have been aggregated to form larger irregular particles, usually of 0.5–2 mm diameter.


Process in which powder particles are made to aggregate to larger particles called granules.


Crystalline form of a compound in which water molecules are part of the crystal structure.

Hydrophile–lipophile Balance System

Empirical scale (of 0–20) used to classify surfactants and emulsifying agents.


Tendency of a molecule to be solvated by water.


Property of being water-repellent; tending not to absorb water.


Tendency of a substance to absorb water from the atmosphere.

Immediate-release Tablet

Dosage form that releases the drug immediately.


Insertion or grafting of a biological, living, inert, or radioactive material into the body.


Small sterile usually polymeric matrices, pellets, or particles for insertion or implanting into the body by surgical means or by injection to help achieve sustained release.

Inactivation Factor (if)

Number that expresses the reduction in the numbers of a microorganism, brought about by a sterilization process.

Inhalation Therapy

Administration of drugs directly to the respiratory tract, mostly by aerosols.


Delivery of a generally sterile liquid medication into the body, or a vessel, tissue, or organ via syringe and needle.

Inverted Micelle

Reversible formation of association colloids from surfactants in nonpolar solvents leads to aggregates termed inverted (or inverse, reverse, or reversed) micelles.


Liquid intended for massaging into the skin.


Artificial spherical lipid bilayer droplet formed mainly from phospholipids having a core of water phase, small enough to form a relatively stable dispersion in aqueous media and with potential use in drug delivery.

Loading Dose

Initial, typically larger than the maintenance dose of a drug given to a patient at the start of pharmaco- therapy.


Solution, emulsion, or suspension to be applied to the skin.


Tablet, which does not contain a disintegrant and which is sucked to dissolve in the mouth to produce either a local (e.g., antiseptic) or systemic (e.g., vitamins) effect.


Used as processing aid in tablet and capsule manufacturing, to facilitate the movement of the formulation into the dye and punch and to reduce the energy of compression.


Denotes a dispersed phase having a pronounced affinity for the dispersion medium.


Denotes a dispersed phase having but slight affinity for the dispersion medium.

Matrix Formulation

Specific case of drug embedding in insoluble excipients (typically in a polymer) in order to achieve ex- tended release.

Maximum Additive Concentration

Maximum concentration of a drug, which will form a clear solution with a given concentration of surfactant.

Maximum Safe Concentration

Concentration of a drug in the plasma, above which side effects are likely to occur in a patient.


Aggregates of colloidal dimensions (i.e., association of colloids) formed reversibly from amphiphile molecules.


Formation of micelles.


Emulsions in which the dispersed droplets are in the micron-size range.


Formation of microparticles encapsulating a drug.


Pressure-driven, membrane-based separation process in which particles and dissolved macromolecules larger than 0.1 micrometer are rejected.

Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (mic)

Lowest concentration of an antibacterial drug necessary to inhibit the growth of a microorganism.

Modified Release

Release of a drug from a dosage form that it is not immediate (e.g., sustained release, retarded release, delayed-action preparations, controlled release, extended release, etc.).

Moistening Agents

Usually water or low-molecular-weight alcohols or compounds, used in topical applications and in wet granulation, for the production of tablets.

Multicompartment Formulation

Dosage form (capsule, tablet) comprising several elements (e.g., microspheres or coated pellets) difering in the rate of drug release.

Multilayer Tablet

Consists of several different layers that are compressed on top of each other, to form a single tablet composed of two or more layers.


Formation of nanoparticles encapsulating a drug.


Microscopic particle whose size is measured in nanometers, often restricted to so-called nanosized particles also called ultrafine particles.


Device that disperses liquids to aerosols for therapeutic use by inhalation through a mask.


Greasy, semi-solid preparation for external application, often anhydrous, containing dissolved or dis- persed medicaments.

One-compartment Model

Kinetic model, where the whole body is thought of as a single compartment in which a substance is dis- tributed rapidly, achieving an equilibrium between blood and tissue immediately.

Onset Of Drug Action

Time required to achieve the minimum effective plasma concentration following administration of the dosage form.


Ointment containing >0 % of powder, dispersed in a fatty base.


Very small tablet or pill


Process of agglomeration that converts fine powders or granules of bulk drugs and excipients into small, free-flowing, spherical, or semi-spherical units, referred to as pellets.


Science of preparation of drugs, dosage forms, and drug delivery systems taking into account the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the drug as well as its physical and chemical properties.


Solid material that exists at least in two different molecular arrangements, i.e., distinctly different crystal species.

Polymorphic Transition

Transition of a solid crystalline phase to another phase having the same chemical composition but a different crystal structure.


Existence of two or more different crystal structures for the same compound.

Powder Grades

Defined for powders used pharmaceutically, according to particle sizes.


Dry solid material consisting of many, usually free flowing, fine particles. Conventionally, the title “powder” should be restricted to powder mixes for internal use and alternative terms are used for other powdered formulations presented in this way, e.g., dusting powders, which are for external use.


Exploratory activity that begins early in pharmaceutics, involving studies designed to determine the compatibility of excipients with the active substance for a biopharmaceutical; physicochemical and bioanalytical investigation in support of promising experimental formulations.


Chemically modified form of a pharmacologically active compound that has to undergo biochemical or chemical transformation before exhibiting its pharmacological effect.


Different crystalline form(s) of a solvated compound that differ in the identity and/or the stoichiometry of the solvating molecule.

Relative Bioavailability

Measure of the fraction of a given drug that is absorbed intact into the systemic circulation from a dosage form, relative to a recognized, clinically proven, standard dosage form of that drug.

Repeat Action Dosage Form

Tablet or capsule distinguished from a sustained-release dosage form, by the fact that it releases the me- dicinal agent, or part of it, at any time other than promptly after administration as opposed to a slow, controlled manner.


Process that differentiates or separates solid particles according to their size using a meshed or perforated device.


Method by which powder particles are compressed into a large tablet, called a slug, which is subse- quently dry-screened and compressed into a tablet.


Fluid colloidal dispersion of a solid in a liquid.

Sol-gel Transition

Transition of a suspension of solid, usually colloid, particles in a liquid (sol) to an apparent solid, jelly- like material (gel).

Solubilizing Agents

Additives making a substance soluble or more soluble, especially in water.


Crystalline form of a compound in which one or more solvent molecules are part of the crystal struc- ture.


Process of making dense, spherical pellets by means of special spheronizing or pelletizing equipment.


Scaffold placed into narrowed, diseased vessels (mainly coronary arteries) or a device implanted in a vessel used to help keep it open.


Condition of being aseptic, or statistically free from living microorganisms and their spores.

Sublingual Tablets

Usually small, flat, and soft tablets, which are designed to be placed under the tongue to allow direct absorption of the active ingredient through the mucosa for systemic effect.


Dosage form, semi-solid, used for the administration of drugs via the rectal route, for systemic or local effect. When application is via other routes (e.g., the vaginal route), suppositories are termed differ- ently, inserts, pessaries, etc.

Surfactant (surface-active Agent)

Substance that alters the conditions prevailing at an interface, causing, for example, a marked decrease in the surface tension of water or nonaqueous solvents.

Sustained Release

Dosage form designed to release the drug contained therein at a continuous and controlled rate for a longer period of time that can normally be achieved with its conventional, nonsustained counterpart.


Liquid preparation of high sugar concentration with or without medicinal and additional flavouring substances.


Effect, relating to the entire organism as distinguished from any of its individual parts.


Solid dosage form compressed into a specific shape containing medicinal substances with or without suitable diluents.

Tablet Coating

Solid layers based typically on cellulose derivatives and may include plasticizers and pigments.

Therapeutic Index

Ratio between toxic and therapeutic doses (the higher the ratio, the greater the safety of the therapeutic dose).


The removal of tissue from one part of the body or from one individual and its implantation or insertion in another.

Acid-fast Stain

A stain that differentiates cells that have waxy mycolic acids in their gram-positive cell walls

Acidic Dye

a chromophore with a negative charge that attaches to positively charged structures


A skin disease in which hair follicles or pores become clogged, leading to the formation of comedones and infected lesions

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (aids)

Disease caused by HIV, characterized by opportunistic infections and rare cancers.


A protein that polymerizes to form microfilaments.

Activation Energy

Energy needed to form or break chemical bonds and convert a reactant or reactants to a product or products.


Protein that increases the transcription of a gene in response to an external stimulus.

Active Carrier

An infected individual who can transmit the pathogen to others regardless of whether symptoms are currently present.

Active Immunity

Stimulation of one’s own adaptive immune responses.

Acute Glomerulonephritis

Inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney, probably resulting from deposition of immune complexes and an autoimmune response caused by self-antigen mimicry by a pathogen

Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis

A severe form of gingivitis, also called trench mouth.

Acute Otitis Media

Inflammatory disease of the middle ear resulting from a microbial infection.

Addison Disease

autoimmune disease affecting adrenal gland function


purine nitrogenous base found in nucleotides

Adenosine Diphosphate (adp)

nucleotide derivative and relative of ATP containing only one high-energy phosphate bond

Adenosine Monophosphate (amp)

adenine molecule bonded to a ribose molecule and to a single phosphate group, having no high-energy phosphate bonds

Adenosine Triphosphate (atp)

energy currency of the cell; a nucleotide derivative that safely stores chemical energy in its two high-energy phosphate bonds


the capability of microbes to attach to host cells

Aerobic Respiration

use of an oxygen molecule as the final electron acceptor of the electron transport system

Agarose Gel Electrophoresis

a method for separating populations of DNA molecules of varying sizes by differential migration rates caused by a voltage gradient through a horizontal gel matrix


binding of different pathogen cells by Fab regions of the same antibody to aggregate and enhance elimination from body


leukocytes that lack granules in the cytoplasm


any of various unicellular and multicellular photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms; distinguished from plants by their lack of vascular tissues and organs


antigen capable of inducing type I hypersensitivity reaction


hypersensitivity response to an allergen

Allosteric Activator

molecule that binds to an enzyme’s allosteric site, increasing the affinity of the enzyme’s active site for the substrate(s)

Amino Acid

a molecule consisting of a hydrogen atom, a carboxyl group, and an amine group bonded to the same carbon. The group bonded to the carbon varies and is represented by an R in the structural formula

Aminoacyl-trna Synthetase

enzyme that binds to a tRNA molecule and catalyzes the addition of the correct amino acid to the tRNA


protein synthesis inhibitors that bind to the 30S subunit and interfere with the ribosome’s proofreading ability, leading to the generation of faulty proteins that insert into and disrupt the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane


intestinal infection caused by Entamoeba histolytica

Amoebic Dysentery

severe form of intestinal infection caused by Entamoeba histolytica, characterized by severe diarrhea with blood and mucus


a molecule containing both polar and nonpolar parts


chemical reactions that convert simpler molecules into more complex ones

Anaerobe Chamber

closed compartment used to handle and grow obligate anaerobic cultures

Anaerobe Jar

container devoid of oxygen used to grow obligate anaerobes

Anaerobic Respiration

use of a non-oxygen inorganic molecule, like CO2, nitrate, nitrite, oxidized iron, or sulfate, as the final electron acceptor at the end of the electron transport system


formation of hydrogen bonds between the nucleotide base pairs of two single-stranded complementary nucleic acid sequences


Y-shaped glycoprotein molecule produced by B cells that binds to specific epitopes on an antigen


three-nucleotide sequence of a mature tRNA that interacts with an mRNA codon through complementary base pairing

Antigenic Drift

form of slight antigenic variation that occurs because of point mutations in the genes that encode surface proteins

Antigenic Shift

form of major antigenic variation that occurs because of gene reassortment

Antigenic Variation

changing of surface antigens (carbohydrates or proteins) such that they are no longer recognized by the host’s immune system


compounds that are competitive inhibitors for bacterial metabolic enzymes

Antimicrobial Drugs

chemical compounds, including naturally produced drugs, semisynthetic derivatives, and synthetic compounds, that target specific microbial structures and enzymes, killing specific microbes or inhibiting their growth

Antimicrobial Peptides (amps)

class of nonspecific, cell-derived chemical mediators with broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties

Antisense Rna

small noncoding RNA molecules that inhibit gene expression by binding to mRNA transcripts via complementary base pairing

Antisense Strand

transcription template strand of DNA; the strand that is transcribed for gene expression


antimicrobial chemical that can be used safely on living tissue


serum obtained from an animal containing antibodies against a particular antigen that was artificially introduced to the animal


enzyme without its cofactor or coenzyme


programmed and organized cell death without lysis of the cell


any of a variety of viruses that are transmitted by arthropod vectors


cup-shaped fruiting bodies of an ascomycete fungus

B Lymphocyte

antibody-producing cells of humoral immunity; B cell

Bacillus (bacilli)

rod-shaped prokaryotic cell


condition marked by the presence of bacteria in the blood


any of various unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms typically (but not always) having cell wells that contain peptidoglycan

Bacterial Lawn

layer of confluent bacterial growth on an agar plate

Bacterial Meningitis

bacterial infection that results in an inflammation of the meninges

Bacterial Vaginosis

a condition caused by an overgrowth of bacteria in the vagina that may or may not cause symptoms


irreversible inhibition of a microbe’s ability to divide


chemical or physical treatment that kills bacteria


green, purple, or blue pigments of bacteria; they are similar to chlorophyll of plants


the study of bacteria


having the ability to inhibit bacterial growth, generally by means of chemical or physical treatment; reversible inhibition of a microbe’s ability to divide


organism that grows under high atmospheric pressure

Basal Body

component of eukaryotic flagellum or cilium composed of nine microtubule triplets and attaches the flagellum or cilium to the cell


use of microbes to remove xenobiotics or environmental pollutants from a contaminated site


replication of viral genome and other protein components


fungal disease associated with infections by Blastomyces dermatitidis; can cause disfiguring scarring of the hands and other extremities

Blue-white Screening

a technique commonly used for identifying transformed bacterial cells containing recombinant plasmids using lacZ-encoding plasmid vectors

Blunt Ends

ends of DNA molecules lacking single-stranded complementary overhangs that are produced when some restriction enzymes cut DNA

Broad-spectrum Antimicrobial

drug that targets many different types of microbes

Budding Yeasts

yeasts that divide by budding off of daughter cells

Burst Size

the number of virions released from a host cell when it is lysed because of a viral infection

Candle Jar

container with a tight-fitting lid in which a burning candle consumes oxygen and releases carbon dioxide, thereby creating an environment suitable for capnophiles


protein coat surrounding the genome of the virus


individual protein subunits that make up the capsid

Capsule Staining

a negative staining technique that stains around a bacterial capsule while leaving the capsule clear


organic molecule required for proper enzyme function that is not consumed and is reusable


inorganic ion that helps stabilize enzyme conformation and function


able to be transmitted directly or indirectly from one person to another

Competitive Inhibitor

molecule that binds to an enzyme’s active site, preventing substrate binding

Complementary Base Pairs

base pairing due to hydrogen bonding that occurs between a specific purine and a specific pyrimidine; A bonds with T (in DNA), and C bonds with G

Complementary Dna

a DNA molecule complementary to mRNA that is made through the activity of reverse transcriptase

Complex Virus

virus shape that often includes intricate characteristics not seen in the other categories of capsid


asexual fungal spores not enclosed in a sac; produced in a chain at the end of specialized hyphae called conidiophores


inflammation of the conjunctiva, the mucous membrane covering the eye and inside of the eyelid

Culture Medium

combination of compounds in solution that supports growth


the gel-like material composed of water and dissolved or suspended chemicals contained within the plasma membrane of a cell


a network of filaments or tubules in the eukaryotic cell that provides shape and structural support for cells; aids movement of materials throughout the cell

Cytotoxic T Cells

effector cells of cellular immunity that target and eliminate cells infected with intracellular pathogens through induction of apoptosis


harmful effects to host cell

Death Phase (decline Phase)

phase of the growth curve at which the number of dying cells exceeds the number of new cells formed

Decolorizing Agent

a substance that removes a stain, usually from some parts of the specimen

Definitive Host

the preferred host organism for a parasite, in which the parasite reaches maturity and may reproduce sexually


redundancy in the genetic code because a given amino acid is encoded by more than one nucleotide triplet codon


release of the contents of mast cell granules in response to the cross-linking of IgE molecules on the cell surface with allergen molecules

Dehydration Synthesis

chemical reaction in which monomer molecules bind end to end in a process that results in the formation of water molecules as a byproduct


type of mutation involving the removal of one or more bases from a DNA sequence

Denatured Protein

protein that has lost its secondary and tertiary structures (and quaternary structure, if applicable) without the loss of its primary structure


branched extensions of the soma of a neuron that interact with other cells

Deoxyribonucleic Acid (dna)

double-stranded nucleic acid composed of deoxyribonucleotides that serves as the genetic material of the cell


method of microbial control involving the removal of water from cells through drying or dehydration

Differential Staining

staining that uses multiple dyes to differentiate between structures or organisms


the changing of direction (bending or spreading) that occurs when a light wave interacts with an opening or barrier


having two separate nuclei within one cell

Dimorphic Fungus

a fungus that can take the form of a yeast or a mold, depending on environmental conditions


refers to sexually reproducing organisms in which individuals have either male or female reproductive organs (not both)

Direct Elisa

enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay in which the antigens are immobilized in the well of a microtiter plate; only a single antibody is used in the test


any condition in which the normal structure or function of the body is damaged or impaired


antimicrobial chemical applied to a fomite during disinfection that may be toxic to tissues


protocol that removes potential pathogens from a formite


the separation of light of different frequencies due to different degrees of refraction

Dna Ligase

enzyme that catalyzes the formation of a covalent phosphodiester linkage between the 3’-OH end of one DNA fragment and the 5’ phosphate end of another DNA fragment

Dna Probe

a single-stranded DNA fragment that is complementary to part of the gene (DNA or RNA) of interest

Dry-heat Sterilization

protocol that involves the direct application of high heat


intestinal inflammation that causes diarrhea with blood and mucus


urination accompanied by burning, discomfort, or pain


outer, more gelatinous layer of cytoplasm under a protist cell membrane


swelling due to accumulation of fluid and protein in tissue as a result of increased permeability of capillary walls during an inflammatory response;

F Plasmid (fertility)

bacterial plasmid in E. coli containing genes encoding the ability to conjugate, including genes encoding the formation of the conjugation pilus

F+ (donor) Cell

E. coli cell containing the F plasmid, capable of forming a conjugation pilus

Facultative Anaerobe

organism that grows better in the presence of oxygen but can proliferate in its absence


process that uses an organic molecule as a final electron acceptor to regenerate NAD+ from NADH such that glycolysis can continue


system-wide sign of inflammation that raises the body temperature and stimulates the immune response


filamentous appendages found by the hundreds on some bacterial cells; they aid adherence to host cells

Flagella Staining

a staining protocol that uses a mordant to coat the flagella with stain until they are thick enough to be seen


visible aggregation that forms between a substance in suspension (e.g., lipid in water) and antibodies against the substance

Fluid Mosaic Model

refers to the ability of membrane components to move fluidly within the plane of the membrane, as well as the mosaic-like composition of the components

Fluorescence Microscope

a microscope that uses natural fluorochromes or fluorescent stains to increase contrast


the ability of certain materials to absorb energy and then immediately release that energy in the form of light

Focal Infection

infection in which the pathogen causes infection in one location that then spreads to a secondary location

Free Ribosome

eukaryotic 80S ribosome found in the cytoplasm; synthesizes water-soluble proteins


having the ability to inhibit fungal growth, generally by means of chemical or physical treatment

Gene Expression

production of proteins from the information contained in DNA through the processes of transcription and translation

Gene Gun

an apparatus that shoots gold or tungsten particles coated with recombinant DNA molecules at high speeds into plant protoplasts

Genetic Code

correspondence between mRNA nucleotide codons and the translated amino acids

Genomic Library

a repository of an organism’s entire genome maintained as cloned fragments in the genomes of strains of a host organism


full collection of genes that a cell contains within its genome


class of antibacterials that inhibit cell wall synthesis by binding to peptidoglycan subunits and blocking their insertion into the cell wall backbone,

Gram Stain Procedure

a differential staining technique that distinguishes bacteria based upon their cell wall structure

Green Sulfur Bacteria,

anaerobic bacteria that use sulfide for oxidation and produce large amounts of green bacteriochlorophyll


a molecule that is too small to be antigenic alone but becomes antigenic when conjugated to a larger protein molecule


enzyme that unwinds DNA by breaking the hydrogen bonds between the nitrogenous base pairs, using ATP

Helper T Cells

class of T cells that is the central orchestrator of the cellular and humoral defenses of adaptive immunity and the cellular defenses of innate immunity


1. the capacity to withstand or to recover quickly from difficulties; toughness
2. the ability of a substance or object to spring back into shape; elasticity.


An agent able to produce positively charged hydrogen ions (H+). [Since the hydrogen ion is a bare proton, it usually exists in a solvated form (such as H3O+).]


A compound (or object) that is superimposible on its mirror image.

Addition Reaction

Reactions in which an unsaturated system is saturated or part saturated by the addition of a molecule across the multiple bond.

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