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Prakash Joshi

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Water soluble vitamins include vitamin B-complex (vit. B1,B2 or Riboflavin, Nicotinic acid, Pantothenic acid, Pyridoxine or B6, Folic Acid, Vit. B12, Biotin(Vitamin H),Inositol, Choline and Vitamin C).

Vitamin B-complex

from among more than ten members in the B complex group of vitamins Vit. B1, B6, B12, Nicotinic acid, and Folic acid are most widely used.

Vitamin B1

Chemically, Vitamin B1 is Thiamine or Aneurine. it is water soluble and partially thermostable. It is found in Yeast, beets, beans, crrots, and cauliflowers to a good extent. it is helpfull for the synthesise of acetylcholine. Beri-beri is a vitamin B1 deficiency disease.
  1. Chemically Thiamine or Aneurine, water-soluble and partially thermostable.
  2. Can withstand cooking at 100°C for a short time.
  3. Cooking in alkaline medium decreases its potency.
  4. stable in acid medium.
  1. Found in the husk of cereals.
  2. Vitamin B1 is also found in Yeast, beets, beans, carrots, and cauliflowers to a good extent.
  3. Found in unpolished rice and destroyed in machine-polished rice.
  4. Egg Yolk is also a good source of Vitamin B1
  1. In the oxidation of pyruvic and lactic acid, it acts as a coenzyme,(i.e Flevine adenine dinucleotide, FAD). Oxidation of sugar in the brain and other tissues such as muscles is aided by Vitamin B1.
  2. Fats are synthesised from carbohydrates and proteins with the help of Vitamin B1.
  3. Vitamin B1 is helpful for the synthesis of acetylcholine.
  4. Vit. B1 Aids in growth and carbohydrate absorption.
  5. Helps in the efficient working of nerves, heart and muscles.
Vitamin B1 Deficiency:
  1. it is a vitamin deficiency disease. it may develop in two forms: Dry Beri-beri and Wet Beri-beri.
  2. Dry Beri-beri affects peripheral sensory and motor nerves and gives rise to polyneuritis. Muscular weakness is also a symptom.
  3. Wet Beri-beri has following symptoms
    • Oedematous swelling of legs.
    • Loss of appetite and distension of the abdomen.
    • The progressive state of Irritation in Brain and nerves resulting in paresis and paralysis
    • Muscle cramps due to accumulation of pyruvic acid and lactic acid
    • Weakened heart and breathlessness.
    • Growth retardation
    • Palpitation
    • Easy fatigue
  4. Vitamin B1 is called 'Anti neurotic Vitamin' which cures all the above deficiency signs.

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

Chemically Vitamin B2 is a flavone. Milk, yeast, egg, muscles, kidney, liver, peas, beets and green vegetables are some good sources of it. It is essential fo body growth, take part in cellular respiration and helps in health of eyes and skin. It's Deficiency targets skin and eyes.

Chemically it is flavone and a highly yellow-coloured substance. Deficiency of it is termed as Ariboflavinosis

Vitamin B2 Sources:
  1. Some good sources of vitamin B2 are milk, yeast, egg, muscles, kidney and liver.
  2. Plant sources like whole-grain products, peas, beets and green vegetables.
  3. A small amount of vitamin B2 is also supplied by the gastrointestinal tract.
Vitamin B2 Functions:
  1. Essential for body growth.
  2. By acting as a hydrogen acceptor for the oxidation-reduction system, it plays a vital role in intracellular respiration
  3. Vitamin B2 regulates the hormone concerned with carbohydrate Metabolism.
  4. It helps the retina to transfer light stimuli into nerve stimuli.
  5. It also plays a role in protein Metabolism.
  6. Helps in the maintenance of the health of mouth, skin, eyes and mucosa of the intestine.
Vitamin B2 Deficiency:
  1. Vitamin B2 Deficiency targets skin and eyes.
  2. Cheilitis or Cheilosis i.e. swelling and fissure on the lips, the cornea and glossitis, i.e. swelling of the tongue are the common deficiency signs.
  3. Light sensitivity (photophobia), opacities (cataracts) and redness of capillaries around the cornea (corneal ulcer), may develop in eyes.
  4. Growth retarded, Skin becomes dry and hair fall off.
  5. the condition due to these symptoms of Vitamin B2 is called Ariboflavinosis.

Nicotinic acid

Chemistry: Chemically it is the amide of nicotinic acid. it is called niacin and its amides as Nicotinamide. Nicotinamide is the active form of nicotinic acid which acts in the body. it is water-soluble and partially thermostable.

Nicotinic acid Sources:
Plant sources: Husk (pericarp) of cereals, pulses, peas, beans, tomatoes etc. and the whole wheat
Animal sources: Milk, liver, meat, fish etc.

Nicotinic acid Functions:
Niacin is an essential component of coenzyme (NAD) concerned with energy-releasing reactions. It inhibits the production of cholesterol in lipid metabolism and assists in fat break down.

Nicotinic acid deficiency:
  1. Pellagra is a nicotinic acid deficiency disease, characterised by dermatitis, diarrhoea, and psychological disturbances.
  2. Skin becomes reddish-brown, dry and scaly.
  3. gastrointestinal system disturbances, indigestion and diarrhoea.
  4. Dementia, a mental disorder and other nervous disorders may follow due to pellagra.

Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B3)

  1. it is a dipeptide of alanine and butyric acid derivative.
  2. It is water-soluble, hygroscopic and partially thermostable.
Vitamin B3Sources:
  1. Animal sources: Liver, milk, egg
  2. Plant and other sources: Peas, sweet potatoes, molasses and yeast.
  3. Stored in liver and kidney
Pantothenic acid functions:
  1. Coenzyme-A of Pantothenic acid takes part in carbohydrate metabolism ( transfer of pyruvic acid into Kreb's cycle) and in the synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids.
  2. Coenzyme-A also aids in the conversion of lipids and amino acids into glucose.
Pantothenic acid deficiency:
  1. Not known in man, but degeneration of adrenal cortex follows in rats
  2. Its deficiency produces involution of the thymus and degeneration of the spinal cord and liver.


Chemistry: Pyridoxine is a pyridine derivative, pyridoxal and pyridoxamine all the three together form Vitamin B6. Vitamin B6 water-soluble and heat stable.

Pyridoxine Sources:
  1. Animal sources: Liver, meat, kidney and egg are good sources of vitamin B6
  2. Plant sources: Grains and seeds, green vegetables
  3. found in Yeast and also produced by bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract.
Vitamin B6 Functions
  1. Useful for good health.
  2. Role in tryptophan metabolism
  3. Help in fat synthesis from carbohydrates and proteins.
  4. Aids in polyunsaturated fatty-acid formation.
  5. Acts as a co-carboxylase in the decarboxylation of some essential amino acids.
  6. It serves as a prosthetic group to transaminases.
Vitamin B6 Deficiency:
  1. Acrodynia (dermatitis), degeneration of nerves, retardation of growth, failure to reproduce, and anaemia observed in rats and dogs.
  2. It's deficiency impacts the health of the nervous system.

Folic acid

Chemically it is Pteroylglutamic acid (PGA), yellow in colour, slightly water-soluble, partially thermostable and sensitive to light.

Folic acid Sources:
  1. Meat, milk, and leafy vegetables are rich sources of folic acid
  2. Soybean and yeast have high folic acid content.
  3. Green vegetables, bean etc. are moderate sources of folic acid.
  4. also synthesised by bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract.
Folic acid Functions:
  1. Along with Vitamin B12, Folic acid synthesises nucleic acid
  2. Folic acid is essential for RBC - formation and maturation.
  3. It cures megaloblastic anaemia, especially during pregnancy. Pernicious anaemia is cured only in its early stages and that too along with vitamin B12.
  4. Tetrahydrofolic acid formed from folic acid acts as a co-enzyme in the biosynthesis of purines and pyrimidines that synthesise RNA and DNA.

Folic acid Deficiency: In humans, its deficiency gives rise to megaloblastic anaemia.

Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 is manufactured on pharmaceutical scale as a by-product of streptomycin, synthesised by Streptomyces griseus. It has red colour, due to its cobalt content and named as rubramine.It is absent in plant life.
  1. Vitamin B12 has a very complex formula: C63H88O14N14 PCo
  2. It is red in colour, due to its cobalt content.
  3. Chemically it is Cyanocobalamine.
  4. Vitamin B12 is named as rubramine due to its red colour.
  5. It is water-soluble and partially thermostable
  6. Cyanocobalamine-H, a synthetic preparation, gives a higher and sustained level in the blood giving prolonged effect.
Vitamin B12 Sources:
  1. it is richly found in animal tissues like liver, kidney, beef, egg, etc.
  2. It is absent in plant life. so Milk is important to source for vegetarians and egg is for ovo-vegetarians.
  3. Streptomyces griseus is a fungus which synthesises Vitamin B12
  4. It is manufactured on a pharmaceutical scale as a by-product of streptomycin, synthesised by Streptomyces griseus. it is synthesised by microfloral fermentation in ruminants.
  5. It can also be extracted from the liver directly
Vitamin B12 Absorption, Storage and Excretion:
  1. It unites with the intrinsic factor of Castle present in the gastric juice to be absorbed by the ilium and finally stored in the liver.
  2. from the liver, it is sent to bone marrow to stimulate hematopoiesis.
  3. Vitamin B12 is called the Extrinsic factor of Castle's Hematinic principle.
  4. It is stored in the liver and excreted through the stool and urine.
Vitamin B12 Functions:
  1. It is the extrinsic food factor of Castle which stimulates haemopoiesis of RBC.
  2. It cures Pernicious anaemia in the blood and the subacute combined degeneration of nucleic acid of nerve cells.
  3. Important in DNA metabolism.
  4. It increases WBC and TC along with RBC.
  5. It is essential for the maintenance of the health of the nervous system.
  6. Helps in the process of transmethylation.
  7. Stimulates Lipid formation from carbohydrates
  8. Cures Hypoglycaemia of Vitamin B12 deficiency.
  9. Helps in the process of isomerisation.

Vitamin B12 Deficiency: produces Pernicious, Macrocytic or megaloblastic anaemia, Hypoglycaemia, anorexia and nervous weakness.

Biotin (Vitamin H)

Egg-white is antibiotin in nature so it neutrilises the biotin. taking raw eggs and sulpha drugs give rise to biotin defficiency.

Chemistry: It is a valeric acid derivative with imidazole and thiophene joined to it and also contains sugar. it is water-soluble and thermostable.

Biotin Sources: It present in yeast, peas, cauliflowers, liver and kidney. Egg-white is anti-biotin in nature so it neutralises the biotin.

Biotin function: It has similar functions like B-complex. it is a coenzyme essential for carboxylation and decarboxylation.

Biotin deficiency:
  1. its deficiency results in hypercholesterolaemia, dermatitis, and neuritis.
  2. Longtime use of raw eggs and sulpha drugs give rise to biotin deficiency.
  3. Mental depression, muscular pain, dermatitis, nausea and fatigue may also be due to Biotin deficiency.


Inositol Sources: In cereals it is found along with phytic acid, it is also found in brain, kidney, liver and muscles.
Inositol functions: in animals, it is lipotropic.
Inositol deficiency: Alopecia i.e loss of hairs is seen in mice and eye trouble is noticed in rats.


Source: Egg, butter and nervous tissues of animals.
function: It is lipotropic, it aids in the synthesis of acetylcholine, lecithin and sphingomyelin, it helps in the process of methylation.
Deficiency: Choline deficiency gives rise to fatty liver in Rats. In the human it is used to strengthen the liver.

Vitamin C

Vitamin C is chemically ascorbic acid and is active in the levoform. it is not stored in body. Citrus fruits are its rich sources. it aids insulin production.

Chemistry: it is chemically ascorbic acid and is active in the Levo form. It is water-soluble, thermolabile and is easily oxidisable.

Vitamin C Sources:
  1. Acids fruits like lemon, amala, papaya and pineapple are is rich sources.
  2. Vegetables like spinach, lettuce, cabbage, cauliflowers, and germinated pulses contain vitamin C.
  3. The animal source is poor in ascorbic acid, but adrenal cortex stores a good amount of ascorbic acid.
  4. Milk, meat and fish are its poor sources.
  5. it is not stored in body and excess is excreted soon in the liver.
Vitamin C functions:
  1. helps in the maintenance of germinative cells like fibroblasts, osteoblasts etc.
  2. It maintains the normality of intercellular matrix by controlling collagenous metabolism.
  3. It builds up protein and deposits Ca and P to build the bones.
  4. It speeds up the repair of wounds.
  5. It takes part in RBC formation in the bone marrow.
  6. It has some role in carbohydrate metabolism.
  7. In cell metabolism, it acts as a hydrogen carrier.
  8. it aids insulin production.
  9. it has its role in tyrosine metabolism.
  10. It increases iron absorption from the intestine.
  11. it increases the resistance against the infections and allergy. Inadequate doses, it can abort common cold.
  12. It aids the conversion of folic acid to folinic acid, which is essential for RBC - formation and metabolism of the cell nucleus.

Vitamin C Deficiency:
It is not stored in the body so its deficiency symptoms occur faster. The disease caused by its deficiency is called 'scurvy'.
Scurvy is characterised by capillary bleeding, gum-bleeding, petechial haemorrhage under the periosteum of bones. it gives rise to green-stick fracture of the bone in children. Its deficiency also gives rise to bad teeth.

Vitamin C is essential for life. Biochemically it is closely related With the suprarenal corticosteroids.

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