It was a Persianate Muslim state in South India.
It was one of the major medieval Indian kingdoms.
It was the first independent Muslim kingdom in South India.
The kingdom later split into five Muslim dynasties.
The last remnant of the Bahmani sultanate was disintegrated in the 1520 Battle of Raichur after fighting the Vijayanagara Empire.
Hasan Gangu Bahmani was the founder of the Bahmani Kingdom.
He was a Turkish officer of Devagiri.
In 1347 A.D. he established the independent Bahmani kingdom.
His kingdom stretched from the Arabian Sea to the Bay of Bengal, included the whole of Deccan up to the river Krishna with its capital at Gulbarga.
1) Muhammad Shah I(1358 – 1377)
He was the second ruler of the Bahmani kingdom.
He was an able general and administrator.
He defeated Kapaya Nayaka of Warangal and the Vijayanagara ruler Bukka-I.
He succecced his father, Ala – ud- din Bahman Shah.
2) Nizam – ud – din Ahmad III (1461 – 1463)
Nizam Shah was the eldest son of Humayun Zalim Shah.
He ascended the throne on 4 September 1461 on the death of his father at the age of eight
The real power was held by Mahmud Gawan and his wife as Nizam- ud – din Shah was only a minor.
His reign, however, was short and Nizam Shah died on 30 July 1463 and was succeeded by his younger brother Muhammad Shah III Lashkari
3) Muhammad Shah III Lashkari (1463 – 1482)
Muhammad Shah III was 8 or 9 years old when he ascended the throne on 30 July 1463 on the death of his brother, Nizam-Ud-Din Ahmad III.
Muhammad Gawan became the regent of the infant ruler.
4) Muhammad Gawan
He was a Prime Minister in the Bahmani Sultanate of Deccan.
He was a well known poet and writer.
Later, he became a minister in the court of Muhammad III (1463-1482).
Mahmud Gawan is known for setting up the Mahmud Gawan Madrasa, a center of religious as well as secular education.
He was considered a great statesman.
In 1481 Muhammad Gawan persecuted by the Deccan Muslims who were jealous of him and sentenced to death by Muhammad Shah, an act that Muhammad Shah III latter regretted until his death.
Contribution to Education
The Bahmani Sultans gave great attention to education.
They encouraged Arabic and Persian learning.
Urdu also flourished during this period.
Art and Architecture
Numerous mosques, madrasas and libraries were built.
The Jama Masjid at Gulbarga.
The Golgumbaz at Bijapur.
The Madrasas of Muhammad Gawan.
Later rulers and decline
Muhammad Shah III was succeeded by his son Mahmud Shah Bahmani II.
He was the last Bahmani ruler to have real power.
After 1518, Bahmani Kingdom disintegrated into five kingdoms namely:
o Nizamshahi of Ahmednagar
o Qutb Shahi of Golconda
o Barid Shahi of Bidar
o Imad Shahi of Berar
o Adil Shahi of Bijapur
There was a constant war between the Bahmani and Vijayanagara rulers.
The south Indian Emperor Krishnadevaraya of the Vijayanagara Empire defeated the last remnant of Bahmani Sultanate power after which the Bahmani Sultanate collapsed.