a negative staining technique that stains around a bacterial capsule while leaving the capsule clear
Use of products containing genetic material (e.g., pDNA, antisense DNA, siRNA) to treat a disease or condition, or to modify or manipulate the expression of genetic material or to alter the biological prop- erties of living cells.
Drug(s) or formulation(s) of drug(s) or dosage forms, which no longer have patent protection.
Powder particles, which have been aggregated to form larger irregular particles, usually of 0.5–2 mm diameter.
Process in which powder particles are made to aggregate to larger particles called granules.
Crystalline form of a compound in which water molecules are part of the crystal structure.
Empirical scale (of 0–20) used to classify surfactants and emulsifying agents.
Tendency of a molecule to be solvated by water.
Property of being water-repellent; tending not to absorb water.
Tendency of a substance to absorb water from the atmosphere.
Dosage form that releases the drug immediately.
Insertion or grafting of a biological, living, inert, or radioactive material into the body.
Small sterile usually polymeric matrices, pellets, or particles for insertion or implanting into the body by surgical means or by injection to help achieve sustained release.
Number that expresses the reduction in the numbers of a microorganism, brought about by a sterilization process.
Administration of drugs directly to the respiratory tract, mostly by aerosols.
Delivery of a generally sterile liquid medication into the body, or a vessel, tissue, or organ via syringe and needle.
Reversible formation of association colloids from surfactants in nonpolar solvents leads to aggregates termed inverted (or inverse, reverse, or reversed) micelles.
Artificial spherical lipid bilayer droplet formed mainly from phospholipids having a core of water phase, small enough to form a relatively stable dispersion in aqueous media and with potential use in drug delivery.
Initial, typically larger than the maintenance dose of a drug given to a patient at the start of pharmaco- therapy.
Tablet, which does not contain a disintegrant and which is sucked to dissolve in the mouth to produce either a local (e.g., antiseptic) or systemic (e.g., vitamins) effect.
Used as processing aid in tablet and capsule manufacturing, to facilitate the movement of the formulation into the dye and punch and to reduce the energy of compression.
Denotes a dispersed phase having a pronounced affinity for the dispersion medium.
Specific case of drug embedding in insoluble excipients (typically in a polymer) in order to achieve ex- tended release.
Maximum concentration of a drug, which will form a clear solution with a given concentration of surfactant.
Concentration of a drug in the plasma, above which side effects are likely to occur in a patient.
Aggregates of colloidal dimensions (i.e., association of colloids) formed reversibly from amphiphile molecules.
Formation of micelles.
Emulsions in which the dispersed droplets are in the micron-size range.
Formation of microparticles encapsulating a drug.
Pressure-driven, membrane-based separation process in which particles and dissolved macromolecules larger than 0.1 micrometer are rejected.
Lowest concentration of an antibacterial drug necessary to inhibit the growth of a microorganism.
Release of a drug from a dosage form that it is not immediate (e.g., sustained release, retarded release, delayed-action preparations, controlled release, extended release, etc.).
Dosage form (capsule, tablet) comprising several elements (e.g., microspheres or coated pellets) difering in the rate of drug release.
Consists of several different layers that are compressed on top of each other, to form a single tablet composed of two or more layers.
Formation of nanoparticles encapsulating a drug.
Microscopic particle whose size is measured in nanometers, often restricted to so-called nanosized particles also called ultrafine particles.
Device that disperses liquids to aerosols for therapeutic use by inhalation through a mask.
Greasy, semi-solid preparation for external application, often anhydrous, containing dissolved or dis- persed medicaments.
Kinetic model, where the whole body is thought of as a single compartment in which a substance is dis- tributed rapidly, achieving an equilibrium between blood and tissue immediately.
Time required to achieve the minimum effective plasma concentration following administration of the dosage form.
Process of agglomeration that converts fine powders or granules of bulk drugs and excipients into small, free-flowing, spherical, or semi-spherical units, referred to as pellets.
Science of preparation of drugs, dosage forms, and drug delivery systems taking into account the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the drug as well as its physical and chemical properties.
Solid material that exists at least in two different molecular arrangements, i.e., distinctly different crystal species.
Transition of a solid crystalline phase to another phase having the same chemical composition but a different crystal structure.
Existence of two or more different crystal structures for the same compound.
Defined for powders used pharmaceutically, according to particle sizes.
Dry solid material consisting of many, usually free flowing, fine particles. Conventionally, the title “powder” should be restricted to powder mixes for internal use and alternative terms are used for other powdered formulations presented in this way, e.g., dusting powders, which are for external use.
Exploratory activity that begins early in pharmaceutics, involving studies designed to determine the compatibility of excipients with the active substance for a biopharmaceutical; physicochemical and bioanalytical investigation in support of promising experimental formulations.
Chemically modified form of a pharmacologically active compound that has to undergo biochemical or chemical transformation before exhibiting its pharmacological effect.
Different crystalline form(s) of a solvated compound that differ in the identity and/or the stoichiometry of the solvating molecule.
Measure of the fraction of a given drug that is absorbed intact into the systemic circulation from a dosage form, relative to a recognized, clinically proven, standard dosage form of that drug.
Tablet or capsule distinguished from a sustained-release dosage form, by the fact that it releases the me- dicinal agent, or part of it, at any time other than promptly after administration as opposed to a slow, controlled manner.
Process that differentiates or separates solid particles according to their size using a meshed or perforated device.
Method by which powder particles are compressed into a large tablet, called a slug, which is subse- quently dry-screened and compressed into a tablet.
Transition of a suspension of solid, usually colloid, particles in a liquid (sol) to an apparent solid, jelly- like material (gel).
Additives making a substance soluble or more soluble, especially in water.
Crystalline form of a compound in which one or more solvent molecules are part of the crystal struc- ture.
Process of making dense, spherical pellets by means of special spheronizing or pelletizing equipment.
Scaffold placed into narrowed, diseased vessels (mainly coronary arteries) or a device implanted in a vessel used to help keep it open.
Condition of being aseptic, or statistically free from living microorganisms and their spores.
Usually small, flat, and soft tablets, which are designed to be placed under the tongue to allow direct absorption of the active ingredient through the mucosa for systemic effect.
Dosage form, semi-solid, used for the administration of drugs via the rectal route, for systemic or local effect. When application is via other routes (e.g., the vaginal route), suppositories are termed differ- ently, inserts, pessaries, etc.
Substance that alters the conditions prevailing at an interface, causing, for example, a marked decrease in the surface tension of water or nonaqueous solvents.
Liquid preparation of high sugar concentration with or without medicinal and additional flavouring substances.
Effect, relating to the entire organism as distinguished from any of its individual parts.
Solid dosage form compressed into a specific shape containing medicinal substances with or without suitable diluents.
Solid layers based typically on cellulose derivatives and may include plasticizers and pigments.
Ratio between toxic and therapeutic doses (the higher the ratio, the greater the safety of the therapeutic dose).
The removal of tissue from one part of the body or from one individual and its implantation or insertion in another.
A stain that differentiates cells that have waxy mycolic acids in their gram-positive cell walls
a chromophore with a negative charge that attaches to positively charged structures
A skin disease in which hair follicles or pores become clogged, leading to the formation of comedones and infected lesions
Disease caused by HIV, characterized by opportunistic infections and rare cancers.
Energy needed to form or break chemical bonds and convert a reactant or reactants to a product or products.
Protein that increases the transcription of a gene in response to an external stimulus.
An infected individual who can transmit the pathogen to others regardless of whether symptoms are currently present.
Stimulation of one’s own adaptive immune responses.
Inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney, probably resulting from deposition of immune complexes and an autoimmune response caused by self-antigen mimicry by a pathogen
A severe form of gingivitis, also called trench mouth.
Inflammatory disease of the middle ear resulting from a microbial infection.
autoimmune disease affecting adrenal gland function
nucleotide derivative and relative of ATP containing only one high-energy phosphate bond
adenine molecule bonded to a ribose molecule and to a single phosphate group, having no high-energy phosphate bonds
energy currency of the cell; a nucleotide derivative that safely stores chemical energy in its two high-energy phosphate bonds
use of an oxygen molecule as the final electron acceptor of the electron transport system
a method for separating populations of DNA molecules of varying sizes by differential migration rates caused by a voltage gradient through a horizontal gel matrix
binding of different pathogen cells by Fab regions of the same antibody to aggregate and enhance elimination from body
leukocytes that lack granules in the cytoplasm
any of various unicellular and multicellular photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms; distinguished from plants by their lack of vascular tissues and organs
molecule that binds to an enzyme’s allosteric site, increasing the affinity of the enzyme’s active site for the substrate(s)
a molecule consisting of a hydrogen atom, a carboxyl group, and an amine group bonded to the same carbon. The group bonded to the carbon varies and is represented by an R in the structural formula
enzyme that binds to a tRNA molecule and catalyzes the addition of the correct amino acid to the tRNA
protein synthesis inhibitors that bind to the 30S subunit and interfere with the ribosome’s proofreading ability, leading to the generation of faulty proteins that insert into and disrupt the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane
intestinal infection caused by Entamoeba histolytica
severe form of intestinal infection caused by Entamoeba histolytica, characterized by severe diarrhea with blood and mucus
a molecule containing both polar and nonpolar parts
closed compartment used to handle and grow obligate anaerobic cultures
use of a non-oxygen inorganic molecule, like CO2, nitrate, nitrite, oxidized iron, or sulfate, as the final electron acceptor at the end of the electron transport system
formation of hydrogen bonds between the nucleotide base pairs of two single-stranded complementary nucleic acid sequences
Y-shaped glycoprotein molecule produced by B cells that binds to specific epitopes on an antigen
three-nucleotide sequence of a mature tRNA that interacts with an mRNA codon through complementary base pairing
form of slight antigenic variation that occurs because of point mutations in the genes that encode surface proteins
form of major antigenic variation that occurs because of gene reassortment
changing of surface antigens (carbohydrates or proteins) such that they are no longer recognized by the host’s immune system
compounds that are competitive inhibitors for bacterial metabolic enzymes
chemical compounds, including naturally produced drugs, semisynthetic derivatives, and synthetic compounds, that target specific microbial structures and enzymes, killing specific microbes or inhibiting their growth
class of nonspecific, cell-derived chemical mediators with broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties
small noncoding RNA molecules that inhibit gene expression by binding to mRNA transcripts via complementary base pairing
transcription template strand of DNA; the strand that is transcribed for gene expression
antimicrobial chemical that can be used safely on living tissue
serum obtained from an animal containing antibodies against a particular antigen that was artificially introduced to the animal
antibody-producing cells of humoral immunity; B cell
rod-shaped prokaryotic cell
condition marked by the presence of bacteria in the blood
any of various unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms typically (but not always) having cell wells that contain peptidoglycan
layer of confluent bacterial growth on an agar plate
bacterial infection that results in an inflammation of the meninges
a condition caused by an overgrowth of bacteria in the vagina that may or may not cause symptoms
irreversible inhibition of a microbe’s ability to divide
chemical or physical treatment that kills bacteria
green, purple, or blue pigments of bacteria; they are similar to chlorophyll of plants
the study of bacteria
having the ability to inhibit bacterial growth, generally by means of chemical or physical treatment; reversible inhibition of a microbe’s ability to divide
organism that grows under high atmospheric pressure
component of eukaryotic flagellum or cilium composed of nine microtubule triplets and attaches the flagellum or cilium to the cell
use of microbes to remove xenobiotics or environmental pollutants from a contaminated site
replication of viral genome and other protein components
fungal disease associated with infections by Blastomyces dermatitidis; can cause disfiguring scarring of the hands and other extremities
a technique commonly used for identifying transformed bacterial cells containing recombinant plasmids using lacZ-encoding plasmid vectors
ends of DNA molecules lacking single-stranded complementary overhangs that are produced when some restriction enzymes cut DNA
drug that targets many different types of microbes
yeasts that divide by budding off of daughter cells
the number of virions released from a host cell when it is lysed because of a viral infection
container with a tight-fitting lid in which a burning candle consumes oxygen and releases carbon dioxide, thereby creating an environment suitable for capnophiles
organic molecule required for proper enzyme function that is not consumed and is reusable
able to be transmitted directly or indirectly from one person to another
molecule that binds to an enzyme’s active site, preventing substrate binding
base pairing due to hydrogen bonding that occurs between a specific purine and a specific pyrimidine; A bonds with T (in DNA), and C bonds with G
a DNA molecule complementary to mRNA that is made through the activity of reverse transcriptase
virus shape that often includes intricate characteristics not seen in the other categories of capsid
asexual fungal spores not enclosed in a sac; produced in a chain at the end of specialized hyphae called conidiophores
inflammation of the conjunctiva, the mucous membrane covering the eye and inside of the eyelid
combination of compounds in solution that supports growth
the gel-like material composed of water and dissolved or suspended chemicals contained within the plasma membrane of a cell
a network of filaments or tubules in the eukaryotic cell that provides shape and structural support for cells; aids movement of materials throughout the cell
effector cells of cellular immunity that target and eliminate cells infected with intracellular pathogens through induction of apoptosis
harmful effects to host cell
phase of the growth curve at which the number of dying cells exceeds the number of new cells formed
a substance that removes a stain, usually from some parts of the specimen
the preferred host organism for a parasite, in which the parasite reaches maturity and may reproduce sexually
redundancy in the genetic code because a given amino acid is encoded by more than one nucleotide triplet codon
release of the contents of mast cell granules in response to the cross-linking of IgE molecules on the cell surface with allergen molecules
chemical reaction in which monomer molecules bind end to end in a process that results in the formation of water molecules as a byproduct
protein that has lost its secondary and tertiary structures (and quaternary structure, if applicable) without the loss of its primary structure
double-stranded nucleic acid composed of deoxyribonucleotides that serves as the genetic material of the cell
method of microbial control involving the removal of water from cells through drying or dehydration
staining that uses multiple dyes to differentiate between structures or organisms
the changing of direction (bending or spreading) that occurs when a light wave interacts with an opening or barrier
having two separate nuclei within one cell