It was founded by Jalal ud din Firuz Khalji and became the second dynasty to rule the Delhi Sultanate of India.
The dynasty is known for their faithlessness and ferocity, conquests into the Hindu south, and for successfully fending off the repeated Mongol invasions of India.
The Khaljis were of Turko-Afghan origin: a Turkic people that had settled in Afghanistan before moving to Delhi.
I. Jalal-ud-din Khalji(1290-1296)
Jalal-ud-din Khalji (died 19 July 1296) was the founder and first Sultan of the Khalji dynasty that ruled the Delhi Sultanate from 1290 to 1320.
Originally named Firuz, Jalal-ud-din started his career as an officer of the Mamluk dynasty and rose to an important position under Sultan Muizuddin Qaiqabad.
After Qaiqabad was paralyzed, a group of nobles appointed his infant son Shamsuddin Kayumars as the new Sultan and tried to kill Jalal-ud-din. Instead, Jalal-ud-din had them killed, and became the regent. A few months later, he deposed Kayumars and became the new Sultan.
As a Sultan, he repulsed a Mongol invasion and allowed many Mongols to settle in India after their conversion to Islam.
He captured Mandawar and Jhain from the Chahamana king Hammira, although he was unable to capture the Chahamana capital Ranthambore.
He appointed Ala-ud-din Khilji as the Governor of Kara. Alauddin was his son-in-law and also nephew.
In 1292 A.D. Jalal-ud-din defeated the Mongols who had come up to Sunam.
End of Jalal-ud-din
Jalal-ud-din was treacherously murdered by Ala-ud-din Khilji, his son-in-law.
Jalal-ud-din’s policy of peace was not liked by many.
II. Alauddin Khalji(1296–1316)
Ala ud-Dīn Khalji born as Ali Gurshasp was the most powerful emperor of the Khalji dynasty that ruled the Delhi Sultanate in the Afghanistan & Indian subcontinent.
Alauddin obtained the governorship of Kara in 1291 after suppressing a revolt against Jalaluddin, and the governorship of Awadh in 1296 after a profitable raid on Bhilsa.
In 1296, Alauddin raided Devagiri and acquired loot to stage a successful revolt against Jalaluddin. After killing Jalaluddin, he consolidated his power in Delhi and subjugated Jalaluddin's sons in Multan.
He was the first Sultan who attacked South India.
He sent his confidante and general Malik Kafur against the rulers of the south.
Prataparuda-II of Warangal, Ramachandra Deva, the Yadava king of Devagiri, and Vira Ballala-III the Hoysala king was defeated.
He constructed a mosque in Rameswaram.
The kingdoms of the south acknowledged the power of Alauddin Khilji and paid his monetary tributes.
Alauddin successfully resisted the Mongol invasion more than 12 times.
Domestic policies of Alauddin Khilji
Alauddin followed the Divine Right Theory of Kingship.
He introduced four ordinances to prevent repeated revolts.
He impounded pious grants and free grants of lands
He banned social parties and wine.
He introduced a permanent standing army.
He started the system of branding of horses and the descriptive roster of individual soldiers to inhibit corruption.
He fixed the prices of necessary commodities which were below the normal market rates.
He strictly prohibited black marketing.
Revenue was collected in cash and not in kind.
He followed discriminatory policies towards the Hindus and imposed the Jizya, a grazing tax, and a house tax on the Hindu community.
Officers called Diwan-i-riyasat were appointed in the offices called Shahana-i-mandi to standardize the market.
Merchants should have to register themselves in the office (Shahana-i-mandi) before selling their goods at fixed rates.
He was the first to bring the standing army system.
He constructed Alai Darwaza, the Palace of a thousand pillars, and the Fort of Siri.
He was the third Sultan of the Khalji Dynasty of Delhi Sultanate in India.
After the death of his father Alauddin Khalji in 1316, he ascended the throne as a minor, with the support of Ala-ud-din's slave-general Malik Kafur.
After the assassination of Kafur, his brother Qutb-ud-din Mubarak became the regent and subsequently dethroned him to become the Sultan.
Qutb-ud-din Mubarak Shah(1316–1320)
He was a ruler of the Delhi Sultanate of present-day India. A member of the Khalji dynasty, he was a son of Alauddin Khalji.
After Ala-ud-din's death, Mubarak Shah was imprisoned by Malik Kafur, who appointed his younger brother Shihabuddin Omar as a puppet monarch.
After Malik Kafur's murder, Mubarak Shah became the regent. Soon after, he blinded his brother and usurped the power. After ascending the throne, he resorted to populist measures, such as abolishing the heavy taxes and penalties imposed by his father and releasing thousands of prisoners.
He curbed a rebellion in Gujarat, recaptured Devagiri, and successfully besieged Warangal to extract a tribute.
He was murdered because of a conspiracy by his slave general Khusrau Khan, who succeeded him on the throne.
He was the Sultan of Delhi for around two months in 1320.
He belonged to the Baradu Hindu military clan and was captured by the Delhi army during Alauddin Khalji's conquest of Malwa in 1305.
After being brought to Delhi as a slave, he converted to Islam and became a homosexual partner of Alauddin’s son Mubarak Shah.
After ascending the throne in 1316, Mubarak Shah gave him the title "Khusrau Khan", and greatly favored him.
Khusrau Khan led a successful campaign to reassert Delhi's control over Devagiri in 1317.
The next year, he led an army that besieged Warangal, forcing the Kakatiya ruler Prataparuda to resume tribute payments to Delhi.
In 1320, he led a group of Baradus and disgruntled nobles to assassinate Mubarak Shah and ascended the throne with the regnal name Nasiruddin. However, he was soon deposed by a group of rebels led by the noble Malik Tughluq, who succeeded him on the throne.
End of the Dynasty:
Eventually, in 1320 A.D. the Governor of Punjab Ghazi Malik led a group of nobles, conquered Delhi, and captured the throne.
Ghazi Malik assumed the name ‘Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq’ at Delhi and founded the Tughluq Dynasty, a dynasty of rulers.